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This guide delves into the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium principle, a fundamental concept in population genetics, specifically for the case of two alleles. The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that in a large, randomly mating population free from mutation, selection, and migration, allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from generation to generation.

Chi-squared (chi^{2}) = | |

Common Homozygotes (Genotype) | |

Expected (CH) = | Observed (CH) = |

Heterozygotes (Genotype) | |

Expected (H) = | Observed (H) = |

Rare Homozygotes (Genotype) | |

Expected (RH) = | Observed (RH) = |

Frequency Range | |

p Allele Frequency = % | q Allele Frequency = % |

1. The Hardy-Weinberg principle is named after G. H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg, who independently formulated the principle.

2. The principle provides a mathematical baseline of non-evolution, allowing scientists to recognize when a population is evolving.

3. The principle applies specifically to sexually reproducing organisms and cannot be used for asexual organisms.

The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium can be described by the formula:

p^{2} + 2pq + q^{2} = 1

where p represents the frequency of one allele (say, allele A) and q represents the frequency of the other allele (allele a) in the population. The values of p and q are between 0 and 1, inclusive.

While primarily used in the field of population genetics, the Hardy-Weinberg principle is also relevant in medicine and public health. Understanding the principle aids in determining the carrier frequency of inherited diseases in a population.

For instance, in a population where the frequency of allele A (p) is 0.7 and allele a (q) is 0.3, the genotype frequencies under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium would be:

AA (p^{2}) = (0.7)^{2} = 0.49 (49%)

Aa (2pq) = 2 × 0.7 × 0.3 = 0.42 (42%)

aa (q^{2}) = (0.3)^{2} = 0.09 (9%)

The Hardy-Weinberg principle is the foundation of population genetics. The remarkable achievements of both G. H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg in understanding and expressing this concept have greatly facilitated research in genetic diversity, evolution, and disease inheritance.

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Please note that the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium For Two Alleles Calculator is provided for your personal use and designed to provide information and information relating to the calculations only. The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium For Two Alleles Calculator should not be used for you to self-diagnose conditions, self-medicate or alter any existing medication that you are currently prescribed by your Doctor. If the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium For Two Alleles Calculator produces a calculation which causes you concern, please consult your Doctor for support, advice and further information.